The Flying Skull Fragment
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A few words from
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Free hand to Frank Caramelli Jr.
What follows doesn’t change the loyalty and respect I have for my friends: Jim Fetzer, Jack White, John Costella, David Healy and others. I found simply interesting to publish a new interpretation (that I find very plausible) of a phenomenon present within the Zapruder film.
Article without illustrations  ●  Animations & illustrations  ●  Everything and nothing  ●  Biography of Frank Caramelli ◊

2006-2016 by Frank Caramelli Jr.
Flying Skull Fragment, Clearly Seen; Reflected in Trunk Lid.
Almost every issue concerning the assassination of President Kennedy is in dispute. From the number of shots fired, to the number of visitors at the rotunda. One aspect of the assassination that is not in dispute is the fact that a portion of Kennedy's skull was blown away during the shooting, and recovered in Dealey Plaza the next day.
A young man named Billy Harper found the skull fragment, and turned it over to his uncle. The fragment was given to a Dr. Cairns at Methodist Hospital, near Dallas. It was adequately photographed before it found it's way to the White House and into the hands of Kennedy's personal physician, Dr. Burkley. Shortly thereafter, the "Harper Fragment" disappeared. It's whereabouts are now unknown.
That piece of skull bone is visible in the Zapruder film. It becomes visible in frame 313 and flies through the air before going out of view around frame 337.
The Harper Fragment

     Frame 313 of the Zapruder film is undoubtedly the most studied frame of the film. It is probably the most important frame of the film as well, both for what it shows and what it does not. For those not familiar, it is the frame where John F. Kennedy, Thirty-fifth President of the United States, is killed. In that frame, you see his head explode as a bullet shatters his skull. Three seconds later, the man is on the floor of the car, hopelessly beyond resuscitation. In frame 313 we see an horrific splash of blood emanating from the head. Following, we see the President's skull split open, blood, skull fragments, and brain matter splattering around, and flying out of the limousine.

Zf-313      In frame 313, we also see an odd curiosity known to researchers as the "white spot", or "white blob". It is visible in 313 at the right edge of the screen, about twenty percent up the frame from the bottom. It looks to be a foot or so in front of the windshield. It is an elongated oval shape and blurred. It is not visible in frame 312. The "white spot" has been addressed by several researchers, notably by Dr. David Mantik, who argues that it is a "suspicious" characteristic of the film. He points out that the object changes shape in it's short (about twenty six frames; one and one half seconds) appearance. It does change shape; because it is a skull fragment flying and spinning through the air, not, as Mantik suggests, a sloppily painted in object.

Frame 314: The object is just above the windshield, still blurred, and more of a square shape in this frame. It is slightly higher than it is in frame 313. It looks like what it has been called for more than four decades; "...something in the grass...".
"A spot in the grass."

Frame 315: The object has moved the same relative distance that every other object in the screen has moved, allowing for Zapruder's natural movements. The "white spot" is just above driver Greer's head. A little less blurred than frames 313 and 314, but now starting to show a motion all it's own.

Frame 316: A white blur, just behind Greer's head. Greer's head is turned, looking back. Kennedy's body is twisted, his right shoulder well ahead and higher than his left. One of the most telling frames as far as a demonstration of motion and momentum, the "spot", the skull fragment, very much looks to be both flying and spinning in this frame.

Frame 317: The spot is just above the jump seat windshield, appearing as a smaller oval, with blur resulting from it's own motion.

Frame 318: Zapruder's big move. You would too if someone was shooting. I'm surprised he didn't move more. In thirty years of TV news editing, there have been many times I've seen seasoned photographers jump at loud, unexpected sounds. In 318 the entire frame blurs. It is an up and down motion, which is more noticeable (at speed), than a side to side motion. The skull fragment blurs to exactly the same extent all the other objects in the frame do. This blurred motion, from Zapruder's movement, verifies the unchanged authenticity of the film itself; at least in these critical frames. As far as this part of the film, I see no discrepancies in the continuity of motion. And that continuity is verified by Zapruder's jump.

Frame 319: The fragment is just above Connally's head. It is a bit more defined; appearing round and smaller. The spin of the fragment is very apparent here. There is a slight upward tilt. It does not look like something on the lawn.

Frame 320: Right between Jackie Kennedy and Connally. Looking disk like. The upward tilt has flattened a bit, and the speed of flight in this frame appears greater than almost any other frame. Another good example of a frame where it really looks to be flying. It is just a bit lower than in 319, appearing closer to the curb; though Zapruders movements could be a factor.

Frame 321: Still flying with a disk like motion; nearly to Jackie's pink Hat.

Frame 322: Some in frame movement by the skull fragment, notably elevation. The left leading edge tipping up again. The limousine is now moving away from Zapruder, and more of the car is visible; however, the skull piece could be elevated relative to other objects, that is, it has drifted higher off the ground. Watch Zapruder in play speed to better see this drift and change in elevation. The motion in these frames (321-332) is like a rock skipping on water. There is a wobble and flutter motion; which slows it's flight. In frame 322 the fragment is just above Jackie's hat.

Frame 323: One of the most telling frames. It is this frame as much as any other that demonstrates the flight of the object. Still above Jackie's hat. Elevated even a bit more. The fragment shows more blur than other objects in the frame. This is one of Zapruder's steadiest and clearest frames, yet the "white spot" has more blur and streak. A very important frame as far as separating the fragment from stationary objects. Look at Jackie Kennedy; the frame is steady and clear enough that we can see the texture of her hat - yet the "white spot" is streaking in flight!

Frame 324: The fragment is between Jack and Jackie. The tip of Jackie's white glove can be seen just above the President's head. Blurred with both Zapruder's panning motion and it's own flight. Again, as in 323, there is more blur with the flying fragment than the rest of the frame.

Frame 325: The relationship between frames 324 and 325 is an interesting one. The angle in 325 is downward. 324 dead flat. This relationship is a good indication that this object is not lying in the grass. In just one eighteenth of a second, it's appearance has changed. The pitch of the moving fragment's angle is different. This change would not be seen if we were looking at a something lying in the grass. Another Zapruder jolt. Attendant up and down blur and motion throughout frame. Yet on close examination we see more side to side motion with the fragment, though it is also, of course, subject to Zapruder's (mainly up and down) movement. The downward pitch of the leading edge is very visible.

Frame 326: Leading edge tilted up now, as the rock skipping on water motion becomes more apparent. Jackie's hand and arm are now a bit more in view (she is just beginning to reach out). The fragment, being propelled through the air, again disk like and spinning. Another steady and clear frame that shows the fragment with more motion than objects in the rest of the frame. Keep in mind the Harper Fragment is slightly cupped shaped. It has possibly flipped over. This is the first frame where the fragment can be seen reflected in the trunk lid. It is visible, though indistinct, in the trunk lid.

Frame 327: That white object, previously called the "white spot" or "white blob", is a piece of the President's skull, blown off by his assassin. We have traced it's flight through the air. In frame 327, it is undoubtedly being reflected in the trunk lid of the car. It is a very shiny car. For reference to how reflective the car is, look at frame 371, and notice the clear reflection of Jackie's arm in the trunk lid. In frame 327, the triangular shape of the skull fragment is plainly visible. The Harper Fragment, discovered the next day in Dealey Plaza will have a very similar triangular shape. And because it is moving through the air; not lying in the grass, it's reflection can be seen in the trunk lid. It is impossible for an object lying in the grass to be reflected in the trunk lid of the car. I'll say it again. It is impossible for an object lying in the grass to be reflected in the trunk lid of the car. But that reflection is easily seen in this, frame 327, the best frame showing the reflection in the trunk lid. And this is yet another frame that shows the fragment with more streak and blur than other objects in the frame.

Frame 328: Our second frame where the reflection is clearly visible. Some camera movement, but the second best (to 327) proof that the skull fragment is flying through the air at a height of about four to five feet. Keep in mind the car is moving under the fragment. The fragment is winging it's way toward the center median area where it will somehow be overlooked by investigators and bystanders for more than sixteen hours. Clearly reflected in the top of the trunk. This could not happen if it were on the grass.

Frame 329: Another frame forward, another reflection. This one intersecting with the antenna base on the rear deck of the car, and possibly the most important frame as far as reflection goes. There is a slight distortion in the reflection itself. Not the fragment , but the reflection. The distortion caused by the antenna seating proves again we are seeing an airborne object, almost directly above the car. The rock skipping on water motion again apparent as the leading edge tilted upward. An easily noticeable change in shape in relation to frame 328; something that would not occur if the object were stationary.

Frame 330: The fragment continues to fly, spinning toward the left side of the frame. The front edge is tilted upward, which is slowing it's flight. It's reflection is barely discernable in the trunk lid; just below the motorcycle escort's fender, which shows as a much brighter white.

Frame 331: The most intriguing shape of the fragment. It looks triangular in this frame, with the pointed edge at the left. The Harper Fragment will prove to be triangular. The reflection, though faint, shows this; but it is hard to separate the reflection from the top edge of Hargis's motorcycle fender. This is a relatively blurred frame. The fragment looks to be less than a foot from the motorcycle's wind screen.

Frame 332: A white smear barely in front of the motorcycle windscreen of Bobby Hargis. Hargis stated he was hit with bone, blood, and brain matter, as a result of the shooting. He said the hit was so hard he briefly thought he had been hit with a bullet. Again a blurry frame.

Frame 333: Just past Hargis's windscreen. Did the fragment hit the outer edge of the windscreen? Hard to tell. Watch Zapruder at play speed to get a better look at this. In the sprocket area, agent Hill can be seen running toward the car. The fragment has possibly gained a bit of elevation.

Frame 334: A flat line. Just ahead of the sprocket area.

Frame 335: Into the sprocket area, squarish, again showing more side to side (right to left) movement than objects in the rest of the frame.

Frame 336: The fragment is just at Hargis's face, still showing a flight like motion. Well into the sprocket area. Agent Hill, though running, shows less blur than the fragment.

Frame 337: A tiny spot at the far left, past Hargis. This frame however, is a good example of how reflective the trunk lid is. Following this frame, the Harper Fragment, is not apparent; but there may be other, smaller fragments reflected in the trunk lid in various frames. This will be addressed in closing.

To summarize...

It is patently impossible for an object lying on the grass to be reflected in the trunk lid of the car. Whatever that white spot is - it is flying through the air! Even is you choose to believe it is a piece of paper that just happened to float by at this instant, it is not on the lawn, it is not stationary.

The object is a large piece of the President's skull. It is far too coincidental that it appears at the same instant as the fatal head shot, frame 313. Watching the film at regular speed, you see the fragment flying and spinning through the air. In frames 320 -334, it elevates a bit, showing the same flight properties of a mostly flat, slightly cup shaped, triangular, object. There is a possibility that the fragment flipped over in flight. If we watch frames 322 - 329, we see a rock skipping on water wobble, it elevates up, dips down and back up, probably less than a foot; but this actually slows its overall motion in relation to Zapruder's panning.

If we trace objects moving through the frame at the flat part of Zapruder's pan we find a consistency in length of time it takes to move through the frame. The lamp post at frames 260 to 278 - about eighteen frames. Jean Hill, the lady in red; frames 287 to 305, about eighteen frames. About the same with Mary Moorman, frames 290 to 309; nineteen frames. The handbag that comes into view at 337 and goes out at 355; barely eighteen frames. The skull fragment? 313 through 334. Twenty two frames, before the sprocket area. Those five frames (minimum) equal almost a quarter second longer to get through the frame. If the object were sitting on the lawn we could expect eighteen or nineteen frames, at most. But the drift and flutter of the Fragment in flight requires a greater duration before it's out of frame. About one and a quarter seconds. Twenty five per cent more time to move out of frame. This is an extremely significant proof that the "white spot" is actually something flying through the air and not lying on the ground. The trunk lid reflection confirms this.


What is this significance of this? A piece of JFK 's head flying out the back of the car. Eyewitnesses have mentioned "debris" flying from the presidents head; indeed Jackie was probably trying to retrieve a skull fragment. Ike Altgens told the Warren Commission he saw debris flying out the "right side of the car". It was noticed; but until now, not identified in the Zapruder film, and I have only been able to do so because of the reflection. I would like to reiterate the fact that something lying in the grass cannot be reflected in the trunk lid.

I do hold out the possibility that other airborne skull fragments could be visible in Zapruder and reflected in the trunk lid. In frame 338 and 339, a small white spot appears above the limousine but the reflection of it is, well, difficult. I am reviewing this and other frames in ongoing research. And I will also continue research into the varied number frames a given object needs to pass through the screen.

Does this change the parameters of information on the assassination? I would like to think so. First off, it is a very good indication of the veracity of the Zapruder film itself. This is probably the most important fact of my finding and something that can be incorporated into works that entail other aspects of the assassination.

Over the years, the Zapruder film has been attacked as falsified in many ways; actually I have my own problems with it. But for these twenty-five very important frames I have analyzed, I offer my expertise as a video technician, photographer, and editor. Those twenty-five frames; the first full second after the fatal head shot; are real. No alteration. No missing frames. No within frame changes; at least not any that pertain to the flight of the skull fragment.

Actually, the flight of the fragment proves there are no frames missing between 313 and 337. The continuity of motion remains perfect if one tracks the flight of the skull fragment. In a sense we are fortunate the fragment is there. In my opinion the Zapruder film is intact and unaltered for this full second, perhaps the most important second; immediately following the fatal head shot.

What has been altered, we now know, were the frames initially published in Life magazine. How altered? The "white spot", the flying skull fragment, was removed from the frames. Maybe the photo editors speculated that it could well be a skull fragment. Very gory; and may have given rise, just days after the assassination, to a more detailed public discussion of the direction of shots. For whatever reasons, the actions of the Life editors gave rise to speculation, and a resulting spread of misinformation.

The fragment itself. It is almost undoubtedly the "Harper Fragment", or a larger piece which contained the Harper Fragment.. In some frames it appears to have the same triangular shape of the Harper Fragment. There is testimony of Dallas Police officers saying they took pieces of skull from the center meridian and threw them in the trash! Many researchers, particularly on the medical/autopsy side of things have tried to "fit" the Harper Fragment into other evidence; and also back onto JFK's head. There remains the possibility that a study of the shape of the fragment in flight could help this branch of research.
Let's address the disappearance of the Harper Fragment. Tracing it's chain of possession trail, it travels from Billy Harper, to his uncle Jack, to a Dallas area physician, and then into the hands of Dr. Burkley, JFK's personal physician. It subsequently vanished.

I would now like to offer my most speculative statement. The fragment was tested. Sooner rather than later, and by the Kennedy family, in secret from the Johnson government. It was possibly shown to contain various metals , indications of different types of ammunition. Perhaps mercury was discovered in the testing; evidence of frangible bullets, and much more sophistication than Oswald acting alone with a broken old rifle. Perhaps something even more sinister; was discovered, like cyanide.

Imagine a conversation, around Christmastime 1963, involving Bobby, Ted, Rose, Jackie, the list could go on. The family, close friends and advisers, and political allies may have known, soon after the deed itself, that a conspiracy was enacted. The mindset among these people would have been one of "...who cares what Johnson comes up with; we know the truth..." The disappearance of the Harper fragment and subsequently the brain matter slides could be connected. There is speculation that the Kennedy family took possession of the brain matter slides. It should be noted that the Harper fragment, and other skull fragments, were not included in the autopsy evidence, and were never entered into evidence by the Warren Commission.

The angle, direction, and origin of the shots. The fragment is blown forward in frame 313. Those in the research community who ascribe to shots from behind will put this forth as proof. I'm not sure it is, I can offer only visual expertise, not gunshot, bullet, trajectory or anatomy expertise. But the fragment doesn't just fly forward; it floats backward. My eye tells me that is because it is spinning. "Helicoptering" as a friend of mine said; above and then to the side of the limousine.

The force of a bullet hitting from behind was not absolute, and did not send the fragment forward, at a distance, into the street. Perhaps a shot from behind was mitigated by another shot. Or the flight of the fragment was caused by the physical reaction of the President. Shots from behind would not necessarily indicate the blasting of skull pieces forward. Those in the research community who endorse the idea of frangible bullets being used may find evidence here. Those who've put forth "jet effect" theories may find evidence here, or a new contradiction of evidence. Multiple shots, hitting simultaneously, an idea put forth in many other works, should also be considered.

The grassy knoll. Certainly the Harper Fragment was found adjacent to the grassy knoll. But the spot where it was actually found is puzzling. It should be noted that the relationship between the grassy knoll area and the spot where the fragment landed is subject to many variables.

The other fragment. In Zapruder frame 313 we see what looks to be a skull fragment travelling upwards at about a one o'clock angle. I would like to point out that this fragment has travelled even farther than the "white spot". In frame 314 that smaller skull fragment looks to be about fifteen feet from the presidents head! Certainly a good indication of how powerful a weapon was used. And a very good example of skull fragments being blown away and visible in Zapruder.

The shot from the storm drain. One of the more, shall we say, offbeat theories of the assassination. But then again look at frame 313. The huge spray of blood emanating upward and forward. The large skull fragment to the front left. The spike of yet another skull fragment travelling upwards at the one o'clock angle. This frame offers as much confusion as it does conclusion in the direction of shots. But we must consider a shot from a very low angle. Like the storm drain. This trajectory offers the idea that the president was hit in the low, right side occipital area. Thus the physical movements upward and to the presidents left. Pay attention to frames 320 - 328 and watch how JFK is jerked downward and to his right a split second after the fatal head shot. A reaction to a low angle shot? It seems at least likely.

I have looked at the position of the storm drain; north side, in front of the curb, just to Zapruder's right; and things don't line up. The limousine is not yet to that storm drain when the President's head explodes. We must bear in mind though that the storm drain is not the only place a low angle shot could have come from. There are many possibilities, not the least of which would be one of the lower floors of the Book Depository, west side. Or somewhere in the north portico area.

Looking at the history of publications and findings about the assassination, it seems there is a trajectory, angle, and location for nearly every work. I am not certain that the spray of blood and brain, the scattering of skull pieces, can lead to new facts for those doing research; but it is possible. It may lead to more speculation than anything. But in light of getting all the facts, as many facts as possible on the assassination, I would like to put forth this one. A piece of the president's skull flies out of the limousine and onto the lawn; recovered later. Visible in the Zapruder film. Proven by it's reflection in the trunk lid.

I would like to note here that the Harper Fragment was expelled at frame 313. It could not have happened at any other point. To pose a question: "Why would it not be visible in Zapruder?"

Previously I mentioned my problems with the Zapruder film and I would like to address them now. Bear in mind these observations are based on visual evidence, and I have not examined the film itself, or attempted any measurements of any kind.

Point one: There is no leader on the film. We won't know exactly when Zapruder started rolling unless the leader can be found and proven to fit with what we now know as frame one. Even if Zapruder started rolling only say, four frames earlier; those frames could be very telling.

Point two: The "splice", at frame 207. It's not a splice at all; it's a tear, and it accounts for at least a frame and a half lost, forever it seems. It points to carelessness in the handling of the film, if not an outright change designed to hide something.
It has been said that the film was "dropped". I don't have a lot of experience with eight millimeter film, but dropping a spool rarely causes a break, especially a clean, horizontal one. In my opinion, this break at frame 207 is deliberate; and meant to hide something. If a bullet hits the freeway sign at that frame, a lone gunman theory is rendered impossible.

Point three: The real frame 313. If frame 313 can be proven to be frame 313, that would be nice. The problem is too much is happening in that one frame. Kennedy has moved slightly forward. The reasons put forth for this are many, and almost always speculative. The spray of blood here is quite large and one cannot altogether rule out alteration and/or a missing frame. Or two frames combined, one laid over the other. This would hide evidence though not disturb the continuity of motion. There is not, however, a problem with the continuity of motion from 313 forward. That leads me to believe a frame before what we know as 313 may have been removed or combined. This does lead to a huge discussion of any alteration occurring. And an issue I will continue to pursue.

The two parameters of this issue are this:

- The film remained, except for a break as a result of being dropped, intact from November 22, 1963 to the present.
- The other side of that coin is the fact that the film was successfully held from public viewing for a good twelve years.
And during that time, the technology certainly existed for a wholesale re-figuring of the film.

I would defer to David Wrone (and his excellent work "The Zapruder Film, Reframing JFK's Assassination") as to the why and why nots of these scenarios, and I agree with his school of thought on the possession and possibility of any changes.

Raising the possibility that changes may have been made to the film is a good thing. We may someday see, through advances in technology, that indeed some changes may have occurred. And should those missing frames (at 207+) ever turn up, we will rely on the latest technology to restore them.

Over the years, there have been those who claim the entire film was "faked". Their findings initially received an audience but upon further research those findings have been mitigated, partly by proofs set forth by others, and certainly due to the outrageousness of the claims.

As an "eyes only" guy I would say this. Some dealing with the Zapruder film seem to know know little about how inaccurate a lower quality film can be. And the Zapruder film is of lower quality. It is what it is; a home movie, and we are very lucky that Zapruder did as good a job with it as he did.

Let me briefly explain why. Just one example would be the exposure he drew. It's very good, if it were not, if the film were just a little under or over exposed, (it's actually, to my eye, slightly overexposed) we would not have the fine document that it is. Zapruder held pretty darn steady throughout the shooting; I think a lot of people may have jerked and bounced the camera enough that the images would have been nearly useless. He could have stopped rolling when he heard gunfire. I would say most untrained photographers would stop rolling in the heat of such a shocking moment. All in all a good job and future generations will benefit from the film, even if some day changes are discovered.

Getting back to those who have said the film was "faked"; and addressing some of the logic applied to the "forgery". The idea that what is a straight line in real life, such as a wall or edge of building, should not appear curved on a lower quality film is a joke. I won't even go into what are essentially basic reasons for this. The idea that blur should be uniform in a given frame is also a joke. I'll give you as example from Zapruder itself. As the limousine rounds Houston moving onto Elm, people are clapping. Some of those people are clapping their hands faster than others. Those hands are more blurred if we examine an individual frame. It is also possible that someone clapping their hands slower could have more blur, not less. This happens with motion pictures. To wrap up the topic of wholesale reconstruction of the film, or a substituted film, again, I am in the Wrone school. His book is an essential starting point in education about the film.

The film is complete and if it has been changed it would be no more than a few frames. Do I straddle the line on this one? Yes. I agree with those who say the film survived largely intact; yet, we cannot ignore the missing frames at 207+. I would hold open the possibility that it has been further altered in some way. It would little change the way the film has been perceived so far.

In my opinion this is what you are seeing: A nearly unsuccessful assassination attempt. The goal of the assassins was not to have the president driving down the street clutching at his throat for five or six seconds. The first shot did not find it's mark. Maybe that is what umbrella man is doing; signaling the back up team, as he realizes the president was not squarely hit.

The most damning thing I see in the film and other photos of the assassination; is the inaction of the Secret Service. Slowly gazing back at the Book Depository. And, notice this in the famed Altgens photograph; the two agents on the running board, looking back at the depository, are not looking up! They are looking straight. Straight at Lee Harvey Oswald! Yes, it is Oswald on the front steps of the Depository. The match is the shirt, another aspect of the assassination covered effectively in Wrone's book.

Summing up. I called this section "Everything and Nothing."

because we need all the facts, and it is a fact that a potion of JFK's head was ejected at frame 313 and flew through the air before landing on the lawn. I'll say it once again, something lying on the lawn cannot be reflected in the trunk lid.

"Nothing",... I'm not sure my finding will actually change the way anybody looks at the assassination. I think the "acted alone" school and the "vast conspiracy" people will continue with their set views. But it is imperative that all the facts come out. It is obvious that the more facts the better; for all researchers and all those wanting knowledge of the assassination. I hope I have added to those facts.

"The whole back of his head went flying out the back of the car." Beverly Oliver, eyewitness. Have a look at frames 327 and 328. The back of the President's head. Flying out the back of the car. Reflected in the trunk lid.
2006-2012 by Frank Caramelli Jr.

Biography of Frank Caramelli Jr.
Frank Caramelli Jr.   Frank Caramelli is fifty two years old and lives in Los Angeles. He has worked as an editor, photographer, and producer in television news for nearly thirty years. Frank spent the first nine years of his career as a photographer in the San Jose/San Francisco area, working at KNTV, KPIX, and CNN. He photographed such eventful stories as the Queen of England's visit to Sacramento, and the 1986 campaign for mayor by Clint Eastwood in Carmel, California. Frank won the 1987 Associated Press Award for Breaking News photography, in the video category, when he was with KSBW in Salinas/Monterey. Frank relocated to the Los Angeles area, and went to work for the powerhouse KCAL 9 in 1991. He works as an editor and special projects editor for KCAL, and has won more than one hundred awards for projects as varied as medical, light features, sport, politics, and investigative reporting.
The organizations honoring Frank's work include the Associated Press, Association of Television Arts and Sciences, RTNDA, New York Festival, California Bar Association, Los Angeles Press Club and more. In 1996 Frank partook in a National Emmy award, for the hour long show "Getting Out Alive" in the Community Service category. He won the Los Angeles area Emmy Award for Best News Editor in 2001. KCAL was bought in 2002 by Viacom Corporation and the station was merged with KCBS2. In 2006 Frank created and produced "The Pulse"; a political talk show for KCBS.

Until Frank discovered the "truck lid reflection" he had not researched the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He had read most of the major books, and had seen nearly all of the documentaries on the subject. In 2007, he was reviewing a stabilized, enhanced version of the Zapruder film when he noticed the white spot reflected in the top of the car's trunk lid. He carefully studied the frames, consulting with colleagues in the television industry, before contacting Marcel Dehaeseleer with his findings. Frank is the father of a twelve year old girl, whose soccer team placed third in the 2006 California State AYSO Championships. As hobbies, Frank enjoys surfing and guitar playing. He will continue to research the Zapruder film, and other photographic and film issues pertaining to the assassination

Article without illustrations  ●  Animations & illustrations  ●  Everything and nothing  ●  Biography of Frank Caramelli ◊

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